Institute of Art Design + Technology
Dún Laoghaire

David O'Hagan 

BSc [Hons] Applied Psychology

My name is David O'Hagan and I am currently in the final year of my BSc in Applied Psychology in IADT. My areas of interest are abnormal psychology and sport and health psychology. I am planning on continuing my studies with an MSc in Applied Psychology and later pursuing a Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology.

Project Overview

There has been a vast increase in the number of studies conducted in the area of exercise and self-esteem and research has implied that individuals may use procrastination as a means of protecting their self-esteem. Although there have been studies on exercise, procrastination, and self-esteem separately (i.e., exercise and self-esteem, procrastination and self-esteem) there has been a lack of literature focusing on these variables together. This study aimed to address this gap in the literature and the limitations of previous studies in the area.

Project Description

The Impact of Exercise and Procrastination on Self-Esteem.

The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of exercise and procrastination levels on self-esteem. The study recruited 356 participants ( 59% female, 38% male 3% other) aged between 18-65 through social media sites. The study employed a quantitative, 3x2 factorial, between-groups design. The participants filled out an online survey including three scales; Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965), The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Scale (Godin & Shepard, 1985), and The Pure Procrastination Scale (Steele, 2010). The survey ended with a debrief and psychological resources that participants could use if they were affected by the study. Data of participants was used for statistical analyses (2-way ANOVA, Tukey, and Pearson's correlations).

Project Findings

The results of the study indicated there was a significant difference in self-esteem scores between the low and high procrastination groups. However, there was no significant difference between the exercise groups (active, moderately active, sedentary) and no significant interaction between exercise and procrastination. Upon further analysis, an independent t-test reported a significant difference between the active and sedentary exercise groups on their self-esteem. The results of the study also indicated there was a significant relationship between exercise, procrastination, and self-esteem.
The findings of the study support the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (Morgan, 1989) which states that higher levels of exercise lead to higher self-esteem.
The findings of this study are also consistent with those of previous research, reporting that less exercise is associated with lower self-esteem. Moreover, higher levels of procrastination have been linked with lower levels of self-esteem in previous literature